Igo Mnuka stone used to indicate the deaths of important men. Illustration of forest self-protection means. A grinding stone for maize. A mental representation of the traditionally protected sites of Kwangovi village in Sungululu, Taita Hills. Traditionally protected forests and sites in Central Dawida. Traditionally protected forests and sites in Mbololo-Choke.
Traditionally protected forests and sites in Kidaya-Chawia. Traditionally protected forests and sites in Mgange. Ficus thonongii and Erythrina abyssinica have symbolical roles in maintaining social peace and order. Herbalist, Mzee Mwairo used to know the herbs on his field and in the surrounding forests.
The three spheres embodying Taita traditions. Eucalyptus and eroded soil. Pressures on and off the integrity of traditionally protected forests. Basis for nature conservation in the Taita Hills. Traditional Ecological Knowledge tree highlights the connections between the factors affecting TEK preservation and enhancement in natural resource management in the Taita Hills. Table 1. Compilation of methods used in this study.
Table 2. Age composition of the household interviewees in Table 3. Settlement history of the household interviewees. Table 4.
Table 5. Government gazetted forests in Taita Hills. Table 6. Table 7. Local land use classes versus scientific land use classes. Table 8. Forest history of Kidaya-Ngerenyi area according to the villagers. Table 9. Areas of the ground-truthed and mind-mapped traditionally protected forests and sites. Table Division of the ground-truthed traditionally protected forests and sites by size.
Forest condition class Table Sacredness condition class. Managers and forest condition. Important factors when managing trees on farm.
Historical farm tree transect. Distribution of tree management tasks in households. Use of traditional medicines in Taita households.
The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats according to the community groups engaged in forest management, and living adjacent Ngangao, Chawia, Mbololo and Mwambirwa forests. Thus, when you are talking to the tree you are talking to the ancestors, and when you are claiming for some rain, the rains will come. Indigenous forests are globally depleting despite various conservation and development efforts. Farmers face problems of droughts, soil erosion, water pollution and desertification. Both economic and population growth place enormous demands on natural resources. Kenya has an annual population growth rate of 2.
Kenya has approximately 1.
Forests are surrounded by densely populated areas, thus under pressure for settlements, timber and non-timber products despite their designation as protected areas. In subSaharan scale, forest loss is proceeding at a rate of 2. In Afromontane areas the decrease is estimated to be 3. Fresh means for sustainable resource management are more often sought by sourcing from the traditional knowledge base of the people living in vulnerable areas.
In some cases one traditional means beats a load of modern ones, while in other cases it might be outdated and even harmful to surroundings. The way people understand the ecosystems around them and their relationship with their environments is crucial for the area development.
The perceptions and cultural traditions of local people define the future trajectories alongside policies and other external forces, and thus ought to be given more serious consideration qua regional and environmental planning. In Taita Hills, south-eastern Kenya see Figure 1 , African traditional world views are mixed with Western thinking and Christian values. The Taita people strive to strike a balance between agricultural production and forestry. Fields are rather small in size, in average 0. Many questions are still answered by ancestor spirits in skull caves and prolonged drought periods reawaken the need for rainmaking rituals.
However, quite a few land owners have sacrificed these sacred groves on the altar of food and timber production, or destroyed the places on the grounds of being pagan. Many elements affect both in a sustainable and unsustainable manner to the decisions of Taitas concerning natural resource use.
Thus, world views, poverty and religion have impacts upon land cover. I will scratch the thin crust which has grown to cover the rich traditions of Taita tribe.
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My study aims to find out how the traditional ecological knowledge of Taitas can be preserved and enhanced within the transforming natural resource management regimes. Figure 1. Kenya and Taita Hills with its forests data based on Pellikka et al. Rural areas with a long history of integrating forestry and farming have also created a biodiversity that is closely connected to landscape patterns. Indigenous knowledge of local communities in the former colonies now continues to challenge the dominance of Western value systems and provide alternative identifications of natural resource management.
These dichotomies present local knowledge as practical, collective and strongly rooted in place.
Local people have been seen as producers of endogenous knowledge concerning resource management, cosmological theories and medical cures. Consequently, less attention has been paid to the contested and hybrid character of such knowledge Moore A post-structuralist perspective would suggest that all knowledges are socially constructed, thus the analysis should focus on the processes that legimitize certain hierarchies of knowledge and power between local and scientific knowledges. Even if traditional ecological knowledge is rooted in the past, it is nonetheless, intricately connected to the culture and values of present people.
Following Nygren there are two mainstream approaches among scholars to endogenous knowledge; firstly, constructing it as a scapegoat for underdevelopment and secondly; as a panacea for sustainability. It is important to distinguish between ancient and modern traditional knowledge, which blend and make a unified whole and genuine, practical knowledge. For the purpose of this study it is useful to briefly consider some of the universal declarations concerning traditional knowledge and endogenous development.
He systematically destroys Stark's buildings, including critically injuring Pepper Potts. Both PRA- and RRA- techniques were applied - questionnaires, household- and expert interviews, focus group discussions and - mapping sessions, narratives, participant observation, farm and forest excursions and secondary sources were used for data collection. In addition, the electronic word of mouth, as a way to choose a trip destination via travel reviews Sons usually got the share of that which their father had allocated to their mother. Benjamin, B. It works as a sequel to the movie, for fans who need more.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights United Nations guarantees fundamental freedoms of personal integrity and action and individual political, social, economic and cultural rights: However, being directed towards nation states it does not easily provide a basis for claims against multinational companies or individuals profiting from traditional knowledge Haverkort Emphasis on both environmental conservation and importance of indigenous and local communities and their knowledge is endorsed by the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and Agenda 21 UNCED Creation draws on the roots of cultural tradition, but flourishes in contact with other cultures.
For this reason, heritage in all its forms must be preserved, enhanced and handed on to future generations….. Additionally, several other declarations, e. Banjo et al. Historically, several religions have explicitly or implicitly prescribed teaching related to the duty of its followers toward the environment.
Ecological wisdom in taboos, symbols and cosmologies of traditional societies transmit the knowledge of conservation to the younger generation, and help them manage resources better through religious or ritual representation Anderson cit. Pandey The term is also most appropriate for the case of Taita Hills. According to Cairns there has been a close linkage between human beings and nature conservation since the beginning of hunting and gathering societies. The concept of sacred holy has been undergoing intense scrutiny by comparative religion, since it is one of the most fundamental and debated concepts within the discipline.
Sacredness can be seen as a boundary dividing religious and secular, but simultaneously bonding them in various individual and communal rituals. The concept is used for attributing things, phenomena, times and places sacred while valuing, thinking hierarchically about and framing things according to their meaning and significance. In other words, sacredness can be seen as culturally defined property that is usually linked to particular and pragmatic political and economic histories Horning Recent trends in Sub-Saharan African forest management - from the fines and fences-approach towards decentralization and participatory forest management Loosening of a strict fines and fences- approach in forest management has in the recent past been a trend in sub-Saharan Africa.
Subsequently, many countries have implemented strategies to address these concerns. New concepts in forest management hitherto unknown in conventional forestry, such as participatory forestry, community forestry Selener , Saxena et al.
Community-based natural resource management CBNRM Community-based natural resource management is being increasingly promoted as a solution to problems of nature conservation. The driving forces behind the adaptation of this concept especially in Eastern and Southern Africa have been the threat of species extinction due to over-utilization of resources, the inability of the state to protect wildlife, land use conflicts between rural communities in resource areas and wildlife managers.
In the background there is common property theory which discourages open access resource management Ostrom et al. Scholars including Janssen et al. Repeated face-to-face discussions and shared planning can lead to improved outcomes in the long term Ghate , Mwangi , Shivakumar The policy trend is toward devolving management of wild natural resources from state- centred control to local level authorities or local communities.
The first is economic instrumentalism, which seeks to ensure that local communities maintain self-interest in woodlands and wildlife management. Secondly, devolution of authority over local natural resources to the local owner-guardians of the land is required. The third element is recourse to a communal property regime as the formal basis for regulating access to the resources. This goal requires the fourth element, which is typically a long process of policy development and legislative changes. The two dimensions of community conservation; participation and concern for economic welfare, form a space where various conservation interventions lie.
Furthermore, participation means different things to different people. Arnstein differentiates participation into eight levels ranging from low participation, where manipulation is commonplace, to high participation, where control rests in the hands of citizens.