The reason may be that, though Christ, he is young, and as yet unauthorised by the Holy Spirit. Craig Raine should take a look at the other two images which relate to this print. Apart from these three and Joseph, the room is empty. But the Rijksmuseum possesses the preparatory study for the Joseph etching itself, the Dutch drawing deriving from some time earlier in the s. In it, the principals are grouped as in the Albertina drawing, but the room is dense with people: brothers and others.
Where his contemporary Poussin idealised by generality, Rembrandt struggled throughout this first half of his career to find laws through truth and realism, by preserving facts, by recording the random. It is early morning in the Joseph etching and it is the sense of solid yet luminous moment which helps to raise this image above the other two versions ; and the time is early morning because the space beyond the upper archway, being lighter and brighter than the room itself, suggests full early-morning sunlight.
If that space were dark, the man might seem to be un dressing. He is not, as Raine proposes, taking off gloves because human beings do not raise their arms to shoulder level and extend their elbows in order to take off gloves. The man is lifting, shifting, setting in place and pulling down all in one gesture his waistcoat or jerkin.
Because his stance is effortful and purposive, though commonplace, his posture could not be sustained long without his over-balancing. He therefore appears to be frozen in a moment of peculiarly rapid gesture. This is perhaps the reason why Rembrandt liked to portray small children, as well as animals. The image gives the impression of peculiar momentariness, and therefore of reality. In the Joseph etching, the man briskly pulling on his waistcoat as he moves in through the door matches the snapshot activity of the small dog washing itself in the lower-left-hand corner of the print.
The rapid and self-absorbed and detached activity of both man and dog highlights the very different yet related, still communication of Joseph at the centre, telling his dreams. Light dawns from within as from without. Craig Raine can read Dickens or Joyce wonderfully well. Craig Raine is getting his chiton in a twist. If he takes a look at the preparatory grisaille painting by Rembrandt in the Rijksmuseum for the etching in question, he will surely concede that the latter has nothing to do with Jesus.
The coat worn by Joseph is clearly a cut above the average.
The artist had many learned Jewish friends with whom he may have discussed this very point. Joseph or Jesus? Raine is surely being perverse. The equally concentrated involvement of the elders magnetised by him bears testimony to this. Maybe not. My reason is this.
The central figure is addressing himself principally to two people: an old man and a young, round-cheeked woman who has a book open on her knees which I take to be her Book of Dreams. Even after we have granted Raine the benefit of every doubt it would be useful to compare Bartsch 37 with the Rijksmuseum grisaille known as Bredius , we are left with the young woman, so far unmentioned in the correspondence.
The young woman and her book seem fatal.
But Raine is right that this sort of thing proves nothing. Both the old titles of Bartsch , Woman with the Arrow and Venus and Cupid , are notoriously mistaken. Some, however, are more persuasive than others. I am quite prepared to concede the secondary point that Titus Rembrandt was born too late, , to be the model for an etching which dates from , but I would like to know the grounds for such a dating. Perhaps Barbara Everett will tell us. My main point still stands and her citation of images of the mature Christ preaching is beside the point. In none of the three undisputed etchings of The Young Christ Disputing with the Doctors Bartsch 64, 65, 66 is he given an auriole.
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Nor does his tunic especially mark him out from the robes of those around him. His age does that. A larger point arises from this.
The huge crowd includes, dim but unmistakable, a mother who is holding her child by the thighs so that it can shit into the river. However, my argument that Rembrandt makes no attempt to render the many-coloured quality of the robe is not, therefore, irrelevant. We have no way of knowing whether Rembrandt was a Hebrew scholar.
nocelfica.ga It is on page four. Nevertheless, even without these inventive embellishments, her very presence is a real difficulty for my interpretation. The force of this counter-argument depends on how meticulously Judaic Rembrandt thought it necessary to be in his portrait of a Jewish temple.
In the undisputed etchings of The Young Christ Disputing , there are several bare-headed male figures. Christ himself is bareheaded in every case. In addition, in The Presentation in the Temple Bartsch 49, British Museum and in every other Presentation there is a mingled crowd of men and women. Not to mention a dog in the foreground, exposing itself as it scratches behind its ear. And in The Young Christ Disputing Bartsch 65, British Museum there are two heads which can be plausibly read as women — a black woman and the face third from the left in the background.
I think this answers his point. Having now seen it for myself, I know it is fatal for the interpretation I have been defending. In it, the curtains are the curtains of an unmistakable bed. On this , I do concede, with gratitude to all my tireless correspondents. Barbara Everett Letters, 13 September says that the dog licking its wedding tackle in the Rembrandt etching acts like a clock: Washing equals Morning.
I have to point out that my dog Thumper tongues his valve-trumpet morning, noon and night. One might as well conclude from what he is washing that the beast is preparing for bed.
Log In Register for Online Access. Contact us for rights and issues inquiries. St Cecilia's Hall. The natural trumpet was notoriously difficult to play, particularly in regard to playing the notes in the upper register. In order to facilitate easier playing, keys were added to the trumpet in by Anton Weidinger.
Joseph Haydn, a friend of Weidinger composed his Trumpet Concerto in E flat major to demonstrate the ability of the new keyed trumpet. Although more flexible than the natural trumpet, keyed trumpets had a poor sound quality and they were replaced by trumpets with valves. Several players in the 18th century experimented with adding keys to the trumpet, the most successful being Anton Weidinger, for whom Haydn wrote his trumpet concerto for keyed trumpet in Eb.
The instrument was extensively used in the first half of the 19th century, until it was ousted by valved trumpets on the continent and slide trumpets in Britain. The keys are opened one at a time, not as on the keyed bugle.
Violin Concerto No. Cello Concerto No. Oboe Concerto in C major, Hob. Horn Concerto No. Trumpet Concerto in E flat major, Hob. Sinfonia Concertante in B flat major, Hob.